When a star is a supernova close, but outside, the event horizon of a black hole, are there limits to how much mass/energy the black hole can absorb?

The black hole can absorb everything that comes right to it.

Black holes are super compact.In proportion to the masses, there will be very little right to come off.

A supernova, where the energy goes on all sides, will hardly touch a black hole.Not even up close. A part will possibly come in later instance into a orbit around the black hole. But given the high velocity of particles during a supernova, that will be relatively little.

During a supernova, a neutron star often arises.This supermassive object is still somewhat capable of influencing the rotational speed, direction and mass of a black hole measurably. A neutron star will probably be drawn to pieces just before the collision and a part will remain in orbit.

If a lot of matter comes with a black hole, an accretion disc arises.Material in that disc will become extremely hot by friction and therefore emit electromagnetic radiation-light. This radiation gives a counter-pressure to the attraction. The relationship between this attraction and the radiation is also called the Eddington luminosity .

The following mainly relates to superheavy black holes and may be somewhat less applicable to a supernova-black hole scenario.

Another limit reaches a supermassive black hole until all it is much bigger-around 50 billion times the mass of the sun.The worst perceived supermassive black hole TON 618 might still be above this limit.

For efficient absorbing, the mass must come within the radius in which there are no stable jobs.In English: Innermost Stable Orbit-ISCO. Then there is an accretion disc in which matter falls into the black hole.

Otherwise, a black hole can only feed with material which has a direct collision rate.A black hole has a very small cross-section relative to its mass, so that’s not going to be very efficient.

Above a certain limit, a black is so large that the radius of the ISCO is so vastly far away from the black hole, that the actual gravity influence of the black hole is relatively low. The attraction between particles becomes greater than the attraction of the black hole.Forming an accretion disc that feeds the black hole becomes almost impossible.

This does not prevent a black hole from growing due to collisions with other compact objects.They will eventually collide, if they come into orbit, by energy loss in gravity waves.

The final limit is due to the expansion of space.Although we are going to the Virgo cluster with our local group, we will never arrive there. While gravity accelerated our movement to the cluster, the distance between on and that cluster is greater. The black hole of the combined Andromeda galaxy will not go along with the huge black hole in that cluster.

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