Malnutrition results from the imbalance of nutrients and energy provided to the body (too low), relative to its needs (too high). Sub-optimal dietary intake, metabolic stress, malabsorption and increased nutrient demands, put a patient with gastrointestinal disease, at high-risk for malnutrition.
What is protein deficiency called?
Too little protein may cause changes in body composition that develop over a long period of time, such as muscle wasting. The most severe form of protein deficiency is known as kwashiorkor. Summary: Protein deficiency is when people do not get adequate amounts of protein from their diet.
Just so, what is the pathophysiology of protein energy malnutrition?
Pathophysiology. PEM is caused by starvation. It is the disease that develops when protein intake or energy intake, or both, chronically fail to meet the body’s requirements for these nutrients.
What is marasmus kwashiorkor?
Marasmus is a form of severe malnutrition characterized by energy deficiency. It can be distinguished from kwashiorkor in that kwashiorkor is protein deficiency with adequate energy intake whereas marasmus is inadequate energy intake in all forms, including protein.
Furthermore, what is the pathophysiology of marasmus?
Marasmus always results from a negative energy balance. The imbalance can result from a decreased energy intake, an increased loss of ingested calories (eg, emesis, diarrhea, burns), an increased energy expenditure, or combinations of these factors, such as is observed in acute or chronic diseases.
What are the types of protein energy malnutrition?
Types include: Kwashiorkor (protein malnutrition predominant) Marasmus (deficiency in calorie intake) Marasmic kwashiorkor (marked protein deficiency and marked calorie insufficiency signs present, sometimes referred to as the most severe form of malnutrition)
Who malnutrition 10 steps?
- There are ten essential steps: 1.Treat/prevent hypoglycaemia. 2.Treat/prevent hypothermia. 3.Treat/prevent dehydration. 4.Correct electrolyte imbalance.
- STABILISATION. REHABILITATION. Step. Days 1-2. Days 3-7.
- Weeks 2-6. Hypoglycaemia. Hypothermia. Dehydration. Electrolytes.
What are the three types of malnutrition?
Various forms of malnutrition
- There are 4 broad sub-forms of undernutrition: wasting, stunting, underweight, and deficiencies in vitamins and minerals.
- Low weight-for-height is known as wasting.
- Low height-for-age is known as stunting.
- Children with low weight-for-age are known as underweight.
What is pathophysiology of a disease?
Pathophysiology is the study of the changes of normal mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions, either caused by a disease or resulting from an abnormal syndrome. From: Haematology Case Studies with Blood Cell Morphology and Pathophysiology, 2017.
What are the complications of marasmus?
Diarrhea, measles, or a respiratory infection are serious complications that can be fatal in a child with marasmus. Diarrhea can also be a contributing cause of marasmus. Other complications include bradycardia, hypotension, and hypothermia. Symptoms
- persistent dizziness.
- lack of energy.
- dry skin.
- brittle hair.
What is PEM name two forms of PEM with their causes?
The two common forms of PEM are kwashiorkor and marasmus. Detailing on PEM, Dr Bhoomika R Kar of Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences (CBCS) said, “Kwashiorkor is caused by severe protein deficiency.
What are the symptoms of kwashiorkor and marasmus?
What are the symptoms of kwashiorkor?
- change in skin and hair color (to a rust color) and texture.
- loss of muscle mass.
- failure to grow or gain weight.
- edema (swelling) of the ankles, feet, and belly.
- damaged immune system, which can lead to more frequent and severe infections.
What population is most affected by kwashiorkor?
Kwashiorkor is rare in developed countries such as the UK, but it can occasionally happen as a result of severe neglect, long-term illness, a lack of knowledge about good nutrition, or a very restricted diet. Although kwashiorkor can affect people of all ages, it’s more common in children than adults.
What are the main causes of malnutrition?
Causes of malnutrition include inappropriate dietary choices, a low income, difficulty obtaining food, and various physical and mental health conditions. Undernutrition is one type of malnutrition. It occurs when the body does not get enough food. It can lead to delayed growth, low weight, or wasting.
What is kwashiorkor and its symptoms?
Kwashiorkor is a condition resulting from inadequate protein intake. Early symptoms include fatigue, irritability, and lethargy. As protein deprivation continues, one sees growth failure, loss of muscle mass, generalized swelling (edema), and decreased immunity. A large, protuberant belly is common.
How does protein deficiency cause edema?
Low protein levels in the blood caused by malnutrition, kidney and liver disease can cause edema. If a blood protein, called albumin, gets too low, fluid is retained and edema occurs, especially in the feet, ankles and lower legs.
What is Hypoalbuminemia?
Hypoalbuminemia (or hypoalbuminaemia) is a medical sign in which the level of albumin in the blood is low. This can be due to decreased production in the liver, increased loss in the gastrointestinal tract or kidneys, increased use in the body, or abnormal distribution between body compartments.
What is malnutrition and types of malnutrition?
There are two main types of undernutrition: protein-energy malnutrition and dietary deficiencies. Protein-energy malnutrition has two severe forms: marasmus (a lack of protein and calories) and kwashiorkor (a lack of just protein). Other causes of malnutrition include anorexia nervosa and bariatric surgery.
Then, what is the pathophysiology of kwashiorkor?
Pathophysiology. Kwashiorkor is characterized by peripheral edema in a person suffering from starvation. Edema results from a loss of fluid balance between hydrostatic and oncotic pressures across capillary blood vessel walls. These factors contribute to the edema.
What are the effects of protein energy malnutrition?
The consequences of malnutrition include an increased overall mortality rate, increased hospitalization rates, poor wound healing, and increased susceptibility to infection. The major contributing factor to the development of PEM is poor dietary intake.
Why do starved stomachs bloat?
Kwashiorkor is a severe form of malnutrition associated with a deficiency in dietary protein. The extreme lack of protein causes an osmotic imbalance in the gastro-intestinal system causing swelling of the gut diagnosed as an edema or retention of water.