The question is very complex in itself.That is why the answer will be a little longer. unfortunately! But I try not to make it too abstract, but to simplistic. Let us approach it slowly.
Energy is in principle nothing more than stored potential labour capacity, i.e. a supply of doing work.
Energy is not lost, it is only transformed by one aggregate and another.Consider kinetic energy or kinetic energy. If a movement is stopped by collision, this energy is released, so it is not lost, but transformed into other energy outflow. The manifestations of energy are diverse and will be perceived differently by humans:
Each mass contains a potential energy of work expressed ind Joule:
1 [J = 1 [Nm (newton meters) = 1 [Ws (watt second) = 1 [m2kg s-2.
Energy can therefore exist in different forms.
Important forms of energy are the
- chemical energy,
- the thermal energy,
- nuclear energy,
- the potential energy
- the kinetic energy
- Light energy.
- A mass,as we first imagine it, is a body, something to touch.
And at school we learned that this body should consist of small particles: molecules and these in turn atoms. So far quite simple. First of all, it remains simple, because these atoms also consist of something, they consist of protons, neutrons and electrons. But that is no longer easy if we look further.
Let us stick to the atom as we know it from school.
At first glance, this is something to touch, even if it is incredibly small.Atoms certainly consist of electrons swirling around a nucleus and a nucleus of proton and possibly. Neutron. Everything can be simple or multiple. And small scales are huge in themselves. But despite everything “something material, to touch”
No, the consideration is not yet over, because there are still the muons and the neutrinos.
Muons are similar to electrons but larger and stronger and have an effect on another force, the electroweak. However, they still belong to the leptons, just like the electrons, which show a strong interaction. However, muons have the property of being able to “cling” to the atomic nucleus. This then becomes a little heavier and can lead to a reaction with a proton with even stronger “clamps”. This then turns into a neutron and a neutrino becomes free.
The neutrinos are divided into three types (generations) – we now have to go through them:
- the electron neutrino
- the myon neutrino and the
- Tau neutrino.
And these neutrinos are so unresponsive that they can penetrate significant masses (e.g. the earth itself) without being influenced or influenced.
But then everything can be reversed, the electron becomes positive and the core negative.
The electron then becomes a positron and the proton becomes the antiproton if necessary. with an antineutron in its wake. And let us not forget the neutrino, because there is also an anti-variant, the anti-neutrino. A very rare phenomenon because they react immediately with the normal aromas and cancel themselves out. However, the particles are not really “away” but they are re-used.
But if something disintegrates but isn’t really gone, it’s because it has to be there somehow in something else.This is also the case and can build new atoms out of these building blocks.
We’ve now fought our way from the top to the bottom (right?)
So what are these particles that make up the individual particles of an atom?
In any case, you can see that they are even smaller.
They are quarks; and there are some of them again: so-called ups and downs and then positive as well as negative.
However, these are not particles in the true sense, but a “basic structure” with mass and charge.
And neat as physicists are, they have not stopped, but described 3 generations of quarks:
- Generation: up and down quarks
- Generation: charm and strange quarks
- Generation: Top and bottom quarks
The quarks have different electrical charges, hypercharges masses and quantum numbers and can therefore be combined in different ways.
The heaviest of the quarks is the top quark, the lightest is the up quark. With these mass combinations together with the leptons, the atoms can be mapped. But only the quarks of the first generation form nucleons, i.e. normal matter.
I have already mentioned that the Top Quark is the heaviest quark.
But I should say the most massive one. What is behind this? Quarks shy away from a life as a single they are always in the package. Again, the TopQuark makes an exception, it can exist on its own and then disintegrates into other quarks.
Again, we are at a point that can be questioned!But if the TopQuark can “live” on its own, does it consist of the other quarks or something else? Unfortunately, it is getting a little more difficult now, but be careful, we can do it!
So far we are in the standard model of particle physics, which can be divided into four groups:
- The quarks (the basic building blocks of atomic nuclei),
- leptons (e.g. the electron),
- the calibration bosons (which mediate the interactions between particles)
- and the Higgs field.
Each particle, however, is only a state of the quantum field that it is depicted.And that’s where the Higgs boson sneaks in. It is a quantum mechanical process of the Higgs field that can be detected as a particle. Depending on the “excitation state”, the wave becomes matter or vice versa. The Higgs boson is so important for particle physics, especially because its existence is predicted by the Higgs mechanism, an integral part of the standard model.
But what is the connection with energy now?
Let us return to one of the greatest thinkers of our time, Albert Einstein.
He had thought that experiments could be carried out in a dormant and accelerated system, and that one must in any case come to the same conclusion.
So he compared a laboratory on Earth and one in a spaceship.In both, an extremely precise scale is hung on the ceiling, to which a body of exactly the same mass is attached. This body is shot with a photon, which is absorbed by it.The spaceship scale is recorded an increase in the sluggish mass by the amount of E/c2, the displayed force is then (m+E/c2)g.
The physicists in the Earth laboratory also read exactly the same force (m+E/c2)g on their scales, except that here not the sluggish mass, but the weight of the body has increased by the amount of E/c2.
In both systems, the body has increased in mass by absorbing energy.As a consequence, this leads to the statement that energy and matter are the same. And deal with the formula
Now we are at the point where one can perhaps understand that matter is a kind of “frozen” energy.
Let’s go back to the emergence of this universe to the Big Bang, or rather, shortly thereafter.Time and space have just emerged and our universe initially consisted only of energy.
According to the “Big Bang Theory”, an explosively dense and hot “energy-matter plasma package” formed positively and negatively charged matter about 13 billion years ago.In the nanosecond range, elementary particles, the laws of physics and time appeared. The moment when all kinds of energies began to manifest and differentiate can be described as “creation”, the “beginning of time”.
We only have conjectures about how the “big bang” happened in the subatomic realm, we are dealing with proportions and standards that are as far removed from those of our world of experience as those of space on the other.The laws of our logic and belief no longer apply. A light quant turns out to be a wave (vibration) and a corpuscle at the same time, depending solely on the method of observation. Matter can be transformed into disembodied energy and vice versa.
According to Heisenberg, atoms, electrons and other quantum particles behave fundamentally differently than we know it from our everyday lives.They have both particle and wave properties, their future is absolutely indeterminate and even if you measure here and NOW, the result is not always precise. It is impossible to determine the location x and pulse p of a particle at the same time as precisely as desired
And then there is gravity with its gravitons.There is light and dark matter as well as light and dark energy. We live in a world of particles and waves. The so-called second quantization removes this typing. There are no particles and no waves! 脛tsch! But if mass represents energy and energy mass, then we pay attention to the chameleons who hide in each other. We just need the right glasses!