Sven Jeske’s answer is complete, detailed and accurate.
It is interesting to reject the term, etymologically and originally purely objectively in the derogatory sense, under the pressure of Christian prudery and its misogyny.The meaning of the terms has changed both temporally and spatially, so that societies are geographical
- In polygamous societies outside Europe, a distinction was often made between one main woman and the others with lower saturation.
The term was often translated as “concubines”. For all its accuracy, it is an error because “concubinate”, etymologically, only indicates one fact ;
- “In Switzerland, “concubinate” is referred to as “marriage without a marriage certificate” as in its original meaning.” Sven Jeske ;
- In Catholic Bavaria, on the other hand, it was still prosecuted in the 19th century and placed on an equal footing with prostitution.” Sven Jeske ;
- In France : Articles 515-81 of the Civil Code defines the concubinate as a de facto union which, through a common life with a character of stability and continuity between two persons of different sexes, or of the same sex who live in a couple.
If proven, the concubinate has some legal implications. From 1944, roommates were entitled to family allowances. In view of the development of this type of trade union, the law must adapt to this new situation as early as 1968. Since 1999, the Pact e civil de solidarit茅 has been something other than a concubinate, a registered civil partnership, but more flexible than marriage. Sources: Concubinage en France Wikip茅dia, Pacte civil de solidarit茅 Wikip茅dia.
Small local historical supplement. In 911, the King of France, to end the looting by the Vikings, handed over to one of their chiefs the province that became the Duchy of Normandy.The treaty provided for the Christianization of the installed Vikings, but de facto polygamy lasted for several generations. It was called marriage “moredanico = in Danish way” More danico Wikip茅dia.The mother of the Duke of Normandy, who conquered England in 1066, was a woman more danico, French conqueror, whose name was Willelm and not William.He spoke Norman French, an ancient French dialect with Nordic influences.