Do people act only in their own interests?

Under no circumstances do human beings act by their true nature out of selfishness.The fact that people are only committed to self-interest is a social Darwinist ideathat has had devastating consequences.

The ”original theory of evolution” goes back to Darwin’s grandfather.The biologist Charles Darwin, a co-proponent of the Malthusian scarcitymodel, had observed both competition and cooperation in nature.In the literature on his theory of evolution, he was forced to undermine the weight of cooperation because it ran counter to the theory of scarcity.

The physiology of flight and fight discovered by a man has been known since 1915.In view of the discovery of the reflection of affection and appeasement (Tend and befriend) by a woman at the turn of the millennium (2000), an interesting rethinking of science has taken place.The new focus has changed the view of the functioning of the human nervous system.

Altruismresearch, accompanied by the findings on the physiological foundations of compassion, finally confirms after almost 130 years Darwin’s observation that sympathy [care is the strongest human instinct.

“In a variety of studies, social scientists are gathering a growing set of evidence that shows that we are evolving to become more compassionate and cooperative in our quest for survival and success.

In contrast to the [social Darwinist “everyone for himself” interpretation of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution through natural selection, the social scientists Dacher Keltner and his colleagues collect evidence that the human species is based on its caring, selfless and compassionate properties.”
Article “Social Scientists Present Evidence for the Thesis of the “Survival of the Best”, presented by the US news website for current scientific articles Science Daily and Media Relations University of California, Yasmin Anwar, 9 December 2009

In his book Born to Be Good (2009), Dacher Keltner presents a human image of caring.People with a relatively high vagus nervtonus have more friends and social contacts, are helpful and show a lot of compassion. The vagus nerve is linked to receptors that bind the confidence hormone oxytocin.

  • Articles about Dr.

Dacher Keltner, (*1962) American Professor of Psychology, University of California at Berkeley, Altruism Researcher, Head of the Greater Good Science Center, Author, Professor Teddyb盲r, presented by the national German Weekly newspaper Die Zeit, Claudia Wustenhagen, 26 April 2010

Different perspectives on basic human nature

Jewish-Christian theology1480 BC-present鈥擯eople are born with original sin and are waiting for redemption.

Confucius 551-479 BCHumanity, expressed as goodness and respect/dignity (those), is one of the essential moral values, the comprehensive virtue that emerges in the interpersonal exchange.

Thomas Hobbes 1588-1679 “Life [man is evil, brutal, and short.”

John Locke 1632-1704 Man is born as a blank leaf, but he is out to acquire property.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 1646-1716 “This is the best of all possible worlds.”

Voltaire 1694-1778 Life is unpredictable and full of suffering.

Jean Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778 “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.”
All human beings are good by nature.Through civilization, man becomes evil.

Adam Smith 1723-1790 People are devoted to moral feelings, but largely driven by autonomy and self-interest.

Immanuel Kant 1724-1804 “To feel pity for the fates of individual people is a weak and always blind emotion.

Jeremy Bentham 1748-1832 Man desires pleasure, avoids pain, and is guided by utilitarian desires.

鈿?Thomas Malthus 1766-1834 “We are doomed to a perpetual struggle in a world of scarcity.” With this thesis, the East India Company justified itself for its worldwide raid.

Charles Darwin 1809-1882 People are keen to ensure their survival by multiplying.

鈿?Sigmund Freud 1856-1939 From “Generations of Murderers” people are born with an insatiable sex drive and the urge to kill.They strive to satisfy their libido.

鈿?Ayn Rand 1905-1982 “If a civilization wants to survive, people must reject the morality of altruism.”

Mirror neuron research 1990-today People are soft-connected with each other due to belonging, empathy, conviviality, attachment, affection and camaraderie.

Positive psychology Martin Seligman (*1942) 1998 Well-being is a good feeling that conveys a sense of life and enables sustainable relationships and successes.

Dacher Keltner 2009 People are born as good people, with the facility to take care of others, striving for a life of the highest quality.
The assertion that human beings are primarily concerned with satisfying their desire and maximizing their self-interest is not true.

Source: Innate goodness – innate badness

The American social psychology Dacher Keltner advocates the following theses:

  1. People are good by nature. Through their socialization, they have been grounded to negative reactions.
  2. The essence is the ability to change something in the world by influencing the attitudes of others.

Violence and aggression are an expression of coercivepower.

  • It is not the forms of abuse of powerthat have existed since the beginning that are the greatest threat to humanity, but powerlessness.
  • It creates chronic stress that destroys the body and brain in the long term and, worse, the human ability to engage constructively, feel comfortable and look to the future with hope.

    “You don’t take power, it’s a gift.”

    Dacher Keltner, American Professor of Social Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, Director of the Greater Good Science Center, author, The Power Paradox.How we gain or lose influence, Campus Verlag, 1st edition September 8, 2016

    “The feelings that promote a meaningful life focus the interest on the well-being of others.Compassion changes mind in a way that increases the likelihood of enjoying the improved well-being of others. Awesome wonder changes the values of one’s own self-image. The emphasis on personal desires and preferences shifts towards what connects us to others. The neurochemical oxytocin and regions of the nervous system associated with compassionate emotions promote trust and long-term care. We human beings are naturally designed to turn to these things, rather than satisfying our own desires and maximizing self-interest.”
    Dr.Dacher Keltner, “Born to Be Good. The Science of a Meaningful Life”, 71, W.W. Norton & Company, 12 January 2009

    More information in English here:
    Parasympathetic sympathetic social nervous systems – Bradford, Taylor, Porges, Keltner, Mat茅
    Ellie Drake